Feb 6, 2012

History of the Project of a Mobile Government – A Brazilian Case

Between 2000 and 2010 the government of Parana* used cell phones for delivering services to people. The project had five phases and was called Mobile Government (m-Gov) and this article tells its history. The authors used Mason’s Historical Method because of the way it facilitates the understanding of contemporaneous phenomena related to the use of information technology (IT). The diversity of business processes and government practices underlying the m-Gov operation is still little known in spite of the existence of mobile government projects for over a decade in Brazil, a country today with 202 million of cell phones. By telling the history of Parana’s m-Gov, this article offers information to electronic government (e-Gov) managers on building up, implementation and relevance of the relationships and social capital ways involved in complex corporate projects like m-Gov.

* Paraná is one of the 26 states of Brazil. It has 199.880 square kilometers and it is located in the Southern region of the country, between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Parallel 30. Its capital is Curitiba with 1,746,896 inhabitants. Paraná’s GDP is 5th of Brazil and its population is of 10,686,247 inhabitants.

Keywords: electronic government (e-Gov); mobile government, historical method; information technology (IT). 

The authors of this study investigated how the Government of the State of Parana used cell phones for delivering services to people, where the idea came from and how the m-Gov project came to light between 2000 and 2010. 
In the nineties the State of Parana went through a managerial reform and the practice of e-Gov became a reality with the intensive use of IT in many areas such as policy implementation, administration, service delivery and incrementing democratic practices. It became then clear that the relationship between State and citizens was something more than a mere relationship between a business company and its customers or between business partners. 
M-Gov is a strategy for implementing public services made available in mobile platforms so people and the society as a whole can benefit from information obtained at anytime and anywhere. Delivering good quality services in short time is becoming a major concern for governments in many parts of the world. This happens because citizens are becoming increasingly exigent. This channel for delivering services remains new and complex, still presenting many difficulties and uncertainties for its stakeholders. Questions such as who’s to pay the bill, the government, the operators or the people? Why the telephone regulator agency doesn’t come with reserve measures like exclusive short code for government use or differentiated charges for the government? The answers to these questions remain to be formulated. 
Many countries privatized their telecommunication services in the nineties. This gave way to a massive augmentation in the access to this kind of service. In Brazil mobile telephony was defined as private service and it boomed with the regulation of the pre-paid modality. By January 2011 the number of cell phones actually surpassed that of fixed phones in the country with almost every segment of the population being served by cell phones. Today Brazil has 202 million cell phones with a density of 104.68 phones for each 100 people. The function most widely used is SMS (Short Message Service), with 58 percent of 2 
all used functionalities. Such infrastructure was found be a very good two-way road to communicate government and citizens, in special low income citizens since the number of pre-paid phones is 82.34 percent of all cell phones in use (TELECO, 2011). The potential growth potential of the mobile devices, cell phones mainly, with their density and capillarity has called the attention of government experts worldwide. Brazil is today number five numbers of cell phones. In Latin America it is leader in active cell phone lines. The country’s National Telecommunication Agency ANATEL says that all the 5,565 Brazilian municipalities will have their mobile telephony before 2013 (ANATEL, 2010). 
Several studies point out that it will be difficult for the public services not to use the mobility facilities in order to give more efficiency and quality in promoting inclusion, democracy and citizenship in their work (DINIZ; GREGÓRIO, 2007). However, it seems that governments in all levels are not fully taking advantage mobile electronic channels in their interaction with their citizens, the business community and the society as a whole. Notwithstanding the almost one decade of m-Gov projects in Brazil and the way this technology penetrates in all layers of its population, the resource remains partially unavailable for mass public service delivery and the reality is not too much different in other developing countries. 
Although it seems that Brazil and other countries have some successful experiences with the corporate use of m-Gov, few of them have been reported. Also, Brazilian public administrators have no available studies adequate to the country’s reality to base on the implementation of their projects. The government of the State of Paraná was first to make available cell phone services. Already in 2000 several services were available in such form: driving and traffic information, job availability, prices of agricultural products, frost announcements and information on cultural events. 
In spite of the relative success of some applications and of the growing numbers of mobile telephony, m-Gov did not went further as a privileged channel of service delivery between government and people. One of the reasons is the difficulty of establishing relationship between the many people potentially involved from the side of the government and needed to put in place a corporate model that is sustainable at long term. M-Gov projects involve institutions in and out government such as departments and agencies, computer networks, IT facilitators, telecom companies, brokers, IT suppliers and last but not least, citizens. 
Considering how little the Brazilian government uses mobile services and the paucity of studies in the field, this article brings forward to discussion a referential that can be used as a base for m-Gov corporate projects so public administrators can wake up to the potential found in the mobile technologies to be able to enhance the amount and quality of services delivered to the population. The article focus on the context of mobile government since the subject still remains limited and concentrated to academic discussions in congresses and seminaries on public administration and IT. 

The Reform of Governments and the Electronic Government 
The reform of governments is a historical process whose dimension is proportional to its crisis. It started in the seventies and boomed in the eighties, giving way to a rebirth of the liberalism and to a profound criticism in the way governments intervened or regulated their actions. In the nineties the subject became quite comprehensive and complex involving political, economic and administrative aspects. The intended result was higher efficiency from the part of governments that would be made accountable in last instance to their citizens 3 
(BRESSER-PEREIRA, 1998). The severity of Brazil’s social issues requires mobilizing all resources potentially existent in society, including the participation of different parties being them social, political or from the business community in integrated and innovating actions capable of promoting social development and multiplying its effects and the probability of success. Public services need to be open to social parties that will increasingly take over the role of formulator, implementer and, in some cases, even financer of policies (FERRAREZI, 1997). The possibility of governments to encourage the mobilization of the energies found in the social tissue outside the official bureaucracy to complement the delivery of public services and to support government actions “is quite possible providing governments appropriately get ready to use it, being by creating interface mechanisms to interact with the organized community” (CASTOR; FRANÇA, 1986). The reform of governments became stronger by widely using IT in different fields such as: policy implementation; administration; service delivery; enhancement of democratic practices and in the interaction between government and citizens. 
This new modality that governments started using to talk with their citizens became to be known as electronic government. Fang (2002) defines it as the way by which governments use new information and communication technologies mainly those Internet-based in order to give citizens and business a faster and simpler way to access government information and services. The result would be better quality services and better opportunities for people to take part in democratic institutions and their processes. Along with the reform occurred in the nineties, governments aimed at increasing their efficiency and transparency. Thus e-Gov became to play a major role in this new way and possibility of governing with the participation of a wide network of parties (CUNHA; MIRANDA, 2008). For Riecken and Lanza (2007), the concept of e-Gov is not different from the concept of government itself: what changes it is only the ways and channels used to interact with citizens and to deliver its services. In this sense the introduction of IT made possible the delivery of services through mobile devices, the so-called mobile government. 
Mobile Government (m-Gov) 
In 2004 Kushchu and Yu from the mGovLab of the International University of Japan, defined m-Gov as an strategy for implementing public services through mobile platforms so people can enjoy them and access information at any time anywhere. E-Gov services and applications were to migrate to mobile platforms (DINIZ; GREGÓRIO, 2007). Diniz and Gregório (2007) consider m-Gov as an essential platform for communicating governments and citizens, however the integration of the value chain in this channel is made complex by the lack of clarity of its involved parties. In this chain governments are responsible for offering the services since it is up to them governments to offer or not the services through mobile devices, not forgetting to include the national regulator such as in Brazil the National Telecommunication Agency. Besides supplying the content, governments should be also the disseminators of m-Gov in its active structure and contract the service with the operators or their representatives. 
Many countries as Dubai and Singapore have American state of Virginia pioneered the implementation of m-Gov applications with My Mobile Virginia, the first portal to make available government services through mobile devices. Text messages have been used for example, by the London Police Department to inform citizens about security and to issue emergency warnings (TRIMI; SHENG, 2008). In Brazil, notwithstanding the few initiatives in the field, the number of cell phones reaches over 202 millions with a density of 104.68 phones for each 100 inhabitants with their most widely used function being SMS (58% of all used functionalities). Such infrastructure can be used as a two-way road between governments 4 
and people, mainly low-income citizens since pre-paid phones in Brazil represent 82.34% of the total number of phones in the country (TELECO, 2011). An enquiry by Brazil’s Internet Management Committee pointed out that in 2009 approximately 59% of the population had cell phone. Thirty five percent of them have access to the web, but only 5% use it. This data point out to an already existent electronic channel whose use is also good for the owner of the device, i.e. the citizen. Thus there is a huge potential of use for cell phones to function as interface with governments. 
Data suggest that while mobile phones increased exponentially in Brazil, this growth was not followed by e-Gov initiatives. One of the reasons may have been the difficulty in establishing relationship between the multiple m-Gov stakeholders such as government institutions, departments, data centers, information brokers, IT suppliers and the common citizens who are the main potential interested parties. Such relationship would also involve a business model that could be sustainable at long term. 
Historical Model 
Research historical models may be of great value for offering the opportunity to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the situations and contexts in which these situations take place (O'BRIEN, 2004). Vizeu (2010) points out the interest in using such media because of their possibility in bringing back the historic and intercultural aspects over the dominant ideological reproduction that is prone to exclude the past or the context of organizational theories and practices. The historical viewpoint may help the analysis of administrative phenomena by enhancing and widening research being it by the adoption of a theoretical and conceptual scenario resultant from the historical analysis as well as by using the historical research itself as method of analysis. 
Organizations were rationally designed for solving conflicts between collective needs and individual wills with its action process being necessarily carried out by individuals within an historical context. The identification and analysis of such context using a theoretical and conceptual framework helps the researcher to avoid giving any deterministic or historical bias to his/her study. In other words, one time concepts and ideas are used to analyze facts from another historic time. This results in methodological distortions and fact distancing and underlines a universal untemporal quality (REED, 1999). 
Costa et al. (2010), when saying that the proximity of history and administration did not reach yet its ontological and epistemological potential, they mean that such picture can be confronted through the identification of the paradigmatic confrontation occurring in the field of History and that, along that way, it passes to Administration. Identifying the views coming from the debate confronting traditional history with the new field history may help to: i) better understand the administrative phenomena; ii) enhance awareness from researchers over their research methods and iii) reinforce interdisciplinary actions by creating stronger links between the different fields. 
Costa et al. (2010), in their article Historical perspective in Administration: new objects, new issues and new approaches sustain that power and politics pass on to the field of social representations and their connections with social practices, with priority being given to issues about the symbolic, the social or collective representations, the social imaginary and the memory (or collective memories), the mentalities and the discursive practices associated to power and this discussion is taken away to the administrative thought when the historical perspectives in administration start. 
Mason et al. (1997) propose a historical method focusing mainly on IT. They sustain that when studying a subject together with its timeline and its present implications, the historical method is better to understand contemporaneous phenomena related to the study on 5 
the use of IT. Jayo (2010) defends this method for the diversity of models under use in management operations in Brazil when seen under a retrospective analysis. For him the historical analysis complements the production from a given management model and helps in reconstructing the process diversity. 
Mason’s method has seven steps. For practical reasons they will be presented sequentially however in practice they may come repeated or overlapped. It includes applying basic logic to check out the internal coherence of the data set and going back to depurate the eventual inconsistencies found. This method was used to study the organizational processes of the Parana m-Gov project beyond the official corporate history of the State. The existing organizational structures were seen not as determined by law but as result of decisions from the past. 

A positivist epistemological posture was used in this study as dominant perspective in the projects related to IT (ORLIKOWSKI; BAROUDI, 1991). This kind of research assumes reality as being an objective datum, i.e., it can be described by way of observable and measurable assumptions whoever the researcher may be (MYERS, 1997). Research is based on a set of eventually non-explicit epistemological assumptions related to the nature of knowledge and to the way this knowledge is obtained (MYERS, 1997). According to Myers (1997), such assumptions assume that the reality of a datum objective may be described by way of observable and measurable events that are independent of the observer. The features mentioned in the positivist characteristic and used in this paper represent only those major in the line. Thus one can say that this classification shares characteristics from other epistemological approaches such, for example, the interpretationist. The authors, even using a positivist perspective, reaffirm they belief on the absence of neutrality in research. They actually haven taken part in the e-Gov Project of the State of Paraná, the project which is the object of this study. 
Studies on m-Gov are still relatively few in the literature. The use of mobile technology to deliver public services is also new. So an exploratory study was considered to be more appropriate. The qualitative analysis (case study), by its turn, makes possible constructing the case recording everything that happened in the lives of the organizations using interviews with the involved parties. 
The time period selected for this study was 2000-2010. In 2000 started the first m-Gov actions in the government of the State of Parana and in 2010 some state agencies still were using m-Gov. The population of this study includes the public or private institutions that were involved with m-Gov in the State of Paraná, 20 in total. The sample intentionally extracted with similar characteristics coincides with the target population. The public institutions were: Chief of Staff, Government of the State of Paraná (CASA CIVIL); Guaira Theater Cultural Center (CCTG); Supply Center of Parana CEASA); Data Center of Parana (CELEPAR); Correctional Department of Parana (DEPEN); Traffic Department of Parana (DETRAN); Electronic Government of Parana (e-PARANÁ); Agronomic Institute of Parana (IAPAR); Commercial Board of Parana (JUCEPAR); Police Department of Parana (POLÍCIA CIVIL); Department of Administration and Social Security (SEAP); Department of Social Communication (SECS); Department of Treasury (SEFA); Department of Internal Affairs (SEOG) and Department of Labor and Social Promotion (SETP). The private institutions were: Telecom Mobile Telephone Company (BRT); Global Telecom Mobile Phone Company (GLOBAL); Mobile Telephone Company of Londrina and Region (SERCOMTEL); TIM South Mobile Telephone Company and VIVO Mobile Telephone Company (VIVO). 6 
Interviewed people were technicians and managers involved with the m-Gov Project of the Sate of Parana. The documental research tools were: documental research and interview. All documents were analyzed by using the documental technique that according to Richardson (1989), works on documents in an essentially thematic way in order to determine social phenomena in a trustworthy way. Documents must be carefully read and must not be taken as literal records of actual events. Yin (2005), affirms that the most important use of documents in case studies is to corroborate and to valuate the evidences coming from other sources. All administrative documents used in this study came with their respective use authorization given by written. Retrospective data that helped to know and to recognize important facts in the constitution of the different events were based on 54 documents dating from 2000 to 2009 and in five undated documents, but whose content allowed placing them within a given period of time. The information was taken from websites, and databases of the organizations, digital files and e-mails and paper files such as: the press, project descriptions, reports, meeting proceedings, formal contracts and agreements, texts and articles published in journals and newspapers, printed e-mails and internal documents of the organizations involved in the m-Gov project of the State of Parana. The data obtained were source of consultation for describing the case and for interchange information. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using the content analyses technique. 
The research question was formulated based on Mason’s Historical Method (Phase 1 of the method), specifying a research subject and its time period (Phase 2). In this case the project was Parana’s m-Gov and the time period from 2000 to 2010. The material available was put together and from it the evidences were collected (Phase 3). Phase 4 of Mason’s et al (1997) method consists in critically assessing the collected material including its detailed reading (documental sources, transcription of interviews and researcher’s notes) in order to find out information gaps or contradictions in the data set. In some cases the interviewed persons were called back by phone or e-mail to clarify doubts or contradictions found and to update information. Finally the material was put together, classified and inductively analyzed according to what was planned on Phase 5. Then comes the report that is presented on chapter four (Phase 6). A timeline was elaborated summarizing the 11 years of the project. 
In order to confirm and/or to correct discrepancies found in the documental research it was considered convenient to semi-structural interviews with the people most involved with the project. The persons to be interviewed were those mentioned in the documental research along with other names found by using the Snow Ball technique as recommended by Atkinson and Flint (2001). Even though some names were already known there was no information on the totality of people that deserved to be interviewed. The names of the persons interviewed were omitted for privacy reasons. 
Before the interviews the potential interviewed were given all information on the study justification and goals and every one of them signed a written consent. Six people were interviewed all identified as people highly involved in the process of designing and developing the project. All interviews took place between July 29 and September 21st, 2010. The interviews lasted from 35 minutes to two hours and 20 minutes and were recorded in audio and video. The authors kept in touch with the interviewed people by phone calls, e-mails or personally so as to make corrections, clarify doubts and to complement or to correct their statements and this supplementary input was added up to the material previously collected or transcribed. 

The Parana m-Gov Project went through different phases influenced by political facts or choices made by managers during its existence. In order to adequately describe the project 7 
it is important to understand the influences and the context of each phase. The beginning of each phase is given by the kind of event, that means, a choice, an activity, a project of a fact that has strongly influenced the conduction of the project. It is important to point out that these phases had different time durations, some shorter than others, but the main criterion to identify the phase was an important fact that happened in that phase and not the time duration of the phase. The phases with their names and involved parties are shown in Figure 1 and described below. 
From the creation to the institutionalization: m-Gov prospection and pre-project – The initial phase of the Parana m-Gov Project started in 2000 in the Department of Technology Prospection of CELEPAR. This department was in the business of studying and prospecting new technologies to be used by the government agencies of the State of Parana. It was the time when cell phones were starting to be used in Brazil. M-Gov was born without a specific goal and with no deadline or budget, characteristics that are inherent to any prospecting project. This first phase was full of partnerships and there was interest in cell telephony mainly in the WAP and SMS technologies. The partners realized the potential of such technologies even though they still didn’t know how to use them in government applications. 
The roles played by the involved parties were defined along the process. As responsible for storing the government data and for providing the infrastructure for their supply CELEPAR took over the prospecting role. In order to acquire the knowledge and the technical and legal infrastructure that it did not have, CELEPAR invited the mobile phone companies present in the State of Parana to be partners in the project with two of these companies, GLOBAL and TIM saying yes in 2000. GLOBAL was the first to accept the invitation, but it was TIM the one that actually helped out with the first prototype. Then TIM also took over the role of broker or agglutinative party. So using its technological base, TIM was able to distribute and to deliver information to the other operators and these passed on that information to the registered cell phone owners, a role that in principle CELEPAR was supposed to play. The roles of the partners were being defined with the advancement of the project. The purpose and the priority in this phase were learning how to do. 
The services that were already available in internet were the first to be chosen. The first service to be made available, still experimentally, was the consultation of the DETRAN’s files with traffic fines. The technology used was WAP, a protocol for wireless applications present in some mobile phone models. The service made possible the check out debts linked to vehicles, including traffic fines and tax liabilities. The main users of this service were car owners along with companies in the business of clearing up traffic paperwork called despachantes in Brazil. 
Important to point out in this phase were: 1) the prototype was developed and introduced – the idea of actually using a cell phone – changed the process dynamics of adopting this technology both in the private as well as in the public sphere; 2) in that time not all the State of Parana was covered by mobile phone services, mainly those areas far away from large cities; 3) CELEPAR and DETRAN people started to discuss what we call today equipment usability along with the high cost of information traffic. 
From e-Gov institutionalization to the change of government: the maturity of m-Gov – The starting point of the second phase was the institutionalization of the Electronic Government of the State of Parana in 2001. Along with the act it was created an e-Gov Executive Committee whose job was to design policies, establish guidelines and to put in practice projects like m-Gov. 
Between 2001 and 2003 the following was observed: dissemination of m-Gov in the government structure by means of group discussions involving people from all government agencies with special mention to those from CASA CIVIL and SEOG. These people joined in 8 
the efforts to institutionalize and to firm up m-Gov; nine projects offering services to citizens and to the government internal structure were identified; discussions on the project’s commercial feasibility were started along with the proposal of hiring the SMS service and the initiative of making SMS into a corporate line linking the several state government agencies. WAP was the first application to be used. This technology, notwithstanding being classified as of easy use by suppliers, was considered difficult to handle and expensive for cell phone owners. At that time WAP limitations were transmission speed, screen size and graphic capacity and difficulty of typing on the cell phone keyboard. 
It was on this phase that the government representatives intensified the partnership with the information suppliers. The first commercial proposal for making m-Gov feasible in Parana was presented with the corporate and institutional support from the government agencies represented by the e-Gov. The service offer was determined by the information supplier and the adhesion to the project by the interest of the organization. It was the phase with the higher numbers of people (15 in total) both coming from the government and from the private sector. It was also the phase that made available the higher numbers of applications (eight in total). 
From the government change to the e-Gov discontinuity: m-Gov formalization – In January 2003 the governor elected in 2002 was sworn in and top government officials started to pay special attention to the government portal. This portal contains the services delivered by the government to citizens, to the business and to the government itself. To serve the increasing demand by citizens, business and by the governor himself, it was necessary a technology that would not require too much time to be carry out at an affordable price. It was then that M-Gov stepped in. 
In April 2004 the government of Parana decided to utilize SMS in a corporate way and with isonomy, i.e., with all phone companies operating in the state so as to reach a greater area. The members of e-PARANA discussed legal contract issues with the mobile cell companies, including a consultation letter sent to the government agencies. In 2004 the partnership with TIM came to an end (TIM distributed free of charge SMS for all other operators in the state of Parana), the e-Gov group working on services lead the discussion that ended hiring SMS after a public bid process. The proposal made possible hiring three of the cell phone companies working in Parana: TIM, VIVO and BRT that together responded for 78% of all cell phones in the state. At that time the total number of SMS messages per year was one million eight thousand for the totality of lots and it was to be distributed according to the number of customers of each operator registered in the government systems. This project was called SMS Corporate Use in the Government of Parana and it was awarded the 9th Excellence Award in Public Computerized Services in 2006. The contest was part of CONIP, Brazil’s Public Computer Services Congress. The same year the project was invited to be presented at the Government Technology Event in Canada. 
From e-Gov discontinuity to CELEPAR’s quitting the project: m-Gov decline – In 2006 there was a change in the coordination responsible for operating the electronic government. As result the e-PARANA working groups stopped meeting. Even without any formal decision over it, the project on the corporate use of the m-Gov was disrupted. The 2007 contract that was renewable annually was not renewed in 2009. In 2006 CCTG joined in the project with the cultural programming and the promotions of the Guaira Theater Fidelity Card. An important fact happened in 2009: CELEPAR, considered to be the engine of the project quitted it followed by TIM, also an important partner in the creation, development and maintenance of the m-Gov project. 
From CELEPAR’s quitting the project to the change of government: survival of m-Gov - SETP and CCTG wouldn’t accept seeing disrupted the services they were delivering to the population so they adapted the technology framework to keep the project working. 9 
After the end of the corporate contract with SMS, CCTG hired the cell phone company VIVO. The CCTG and SETP services were made available only to the owners of cell phones working with VIVO. The timeline of the Parana m-Gov Project (Figure 1) shows the landmarks and involved parties in carrying out the m-Gov project in the state of Parana from 2000 until December 2010. 

We went through the birth, the construction and the survival of the m-Gov project of the State of Parana government pointing out the motivations affecting the different involved parties along the phases of the process. The first phase of the project was characterized by cooperative actions, by partnerships where prospecting, learning, discoveries and experimentation took place and by an informal relationship between the partners that did not care about establishing business relationships. In the second phase it became evident that the partners coming from the private sector had business and institutional interests while the government wanted strengthening and making known the project throughout the government agencies while, at the same time, speeding out processes and improving the quality of services delivered to citizens. On the third phase m-Gov was formalized with the government hiring SMS. The project served as reference for the Federal Government and for other states, won an award and was presented outside Brazil. However, in the fourth phase e-PARANÁ leaved the project and the project started to show signs of decline with only six parties remaining in it out of the sixteen present in the previous phase. Finally comes the fifth phase with only three involved parties holding the torch even after the main party had left the project. 
The twenty involved parties both public and private working alone or in partnership were able to play six roles during the 11 years of life of the m-Gov project in Parana: 1) SMS hirer; 2) content supplier; 3) m-Gov disseminator; 4) solution developer; 5) broker; 6) SMS supplier. In general it was noticed that those parties involved with the project aiming at supply m-Gov with information or services remained only in one of the phases while those that were focusing in improving government processes survived or remained longer time in the project. 
Some findings of this study may be used as insight for project managers over government projects. In Parana’s m-Gov the institutionalization of the electronic government, the meeting of parties and the resultant joint discussion that made the corporate project to grow making evident the importance of its institutionalization. On the other side this institutionalization did not guaranteed the project continuity: it “dies” without being aborted thus the importance of the central stakeholders “encouraging” the continuity of the project. When one a major stakeholder CELEPAR quits the service delivery through the channel was almost closed down. Some application managers however kept the project alive for the sake of public interest. Then new associations started to be formed in the absence of the central stakeholders, even when their field of action is not technology and this may be something deserving further investigation. A last remark that in spite of its obviousness cannot be omitted is that corporate projects can be either levered or disrupted when the public administration changes and that the people in charge for these projects must be ready for that. 
The merit of this study is in recuing the history of the m-Gov project of the government of the State of Parana. This project has served as reference for governments of other Brazilian states and for the federal government over which there was no available records for consultation. The still little known diversity of business processes and government practices underlining the channel was shared and based on it inputs can be offered to electronic government managers on the relevance of relationships and ways of social capital used in the construction of complex corporate projects such as mobile government. 10 
Surely the result of the m-Gov project and the use of the Historic Method in government corporate projects like the one discussed here can be better detailed, contested and deepened by future research. In this sense the suggestions can be: to replicate the study in other governments at different levels in Brazil or in other countries; to keep on with this longitudinal study to see how this project behaves at long term and to carry out studies making possible to evaluate and to compare this project with similar projects in Brazil and other countries.

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